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Synergy™ Multivitamin Drink

Synergy™ Multivitamin Drink

$34.99

$44.99

Tasty Multivitamin Beverage

 

  • Provides Essential Micronutrients*
  • Whole Fruits & Greens Complex*
  • Complete Multivitamin*
  • Added Antioxidants*
  • Delicious Taste*
  • 30 Servings

 

 

 

 

Description

Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients for optimizing health. Optitune Synergy™ Mixable Multivitamin Powder is a delicious beverage providing all of your micronutrients and more. With added antioxidants, whole food greens, and digestive enzymes, your functional health is primed to thrive. As a mixable powder, Synergy™ Multivitamin Drink is a perfect alternative for those who do not want to take a multivitamin pill.

 

  • Synergy™ includes a full profile of micronutrients to support health*
  • Taking a daily multivitamin is correlated with better overall health, wellness, and lifespan.*
  • Antioxidants keep the body functioning properly.*
  • Added fruits and greens provide additional phytonutrients, which are correlated with improved health.*
  • All Day Energy provided by Tyrosine, Choline & Dicaffeine Malate

 

 

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Supplement Facts

 vitamin c drink

Ingredient Profile

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is principally found in animal products such as meat, eggs, fish, and dairy as retinol. Provitamin A, carotenoids, are found in orange-colored plants – usually as beta-carotene, but there are over 600 known carotenoids.

 

  • Supports vision and prevents night blindness, xerophthalmia, and keratinization of the eye.
  • Helps with collagen formation for strong connective tissues and smooth skin.
  • Essential for reproduction by stimulating spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and embryonic growth.
  • Antioxidant within the cell membrane.

 

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is the classic immunity vitamin. However, this is just one of Vitamin C’s many important roles in the human body.

 

  • Prevents immune system deficiencies, ensuring the best protection from colds.
  • Can speed the recovery from colds in athletes.
  • Repairs cartilage, bones, and teeth.
  • Protects the body from free radicals, which may help prevent disease.

 

Vitamin D

The sunshine vitamin is well known for its role in bone health, and as is so often the case, it does much more. Vitamin D has numerous vital roles.

 

  • Aids in calcium absorption and reduction of falls for improved bone health.
  • Low vitamin D status is associated with seasonal cold and flu outbreaks.
  • Vitamin D metabolites strengthen muscle contractions
  • May help reduce and control blood pressure.
  • Improves mood and nervous system health.
  • May support a healthy appetite.
  • Enhances sex-hormone synthesis.

 

Vitamin E

The tocoperhols (vitamin E) may be the most potent of the antioxidant vitamins that may help in the prevention of a number of diseases.

 

  • Powerful antioxidant.
  • A cell signal that helps regulate the growth of smooth muscle.
  • May help prevent infertility and atherogenesis.

 

Thiamin

Thiamin and the other B vitamins have a major role in metabolism and energy production. Thiamin (vitamin B1) has the role of decarboxylation and transketolation. Thiamin deficiencies result in a condition known as beriberi.

 

  • Facilitates conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for efficient energy metabolism.
  • Helps with the metabolism of non-traditional sugars, such as ribose.
  • Supports the health and function of neurons.

 

Riboflavin

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) forms flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which along with NAD, moves back and forth through the mitochondrial membrane to form ATP.

 

  • Can help with skin, hair, and nail health.
  • Aids in red blood cell formation.
  • May prevent muscle cramps.

 

Niacin

Similar to riboflavin and FAD, niacin (vitamin B3) is required to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD performs the same function as FAD and may also slow aging.

 

  • Improves blood flow and vascularization.
  • Prevents pellagra.
  • May delay onset of age-related diseases.

 

Vitamin B6

Like the other B’s, B6 is heavily involved in energy metabolism. It is a cofactor in over 100 reactions, many of which within the muscle, where it helps with glycogen utilization.

 

  • Enhances muscle glycogen access and use.
  • Involved in heme synthesis.
  • Supports brain development and function.

 

Vitamin B12

Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.

 

  • In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
  • Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
  • Involved in the replication of DNA.

 

Biotin

Biotin is also known as vitamin B7. Similar to other B vitamins, it is involved in glucose metabolism. Biotin also helps in protein and amino acid metabolism.

 

  • Helps to produce amino acids.
  • Plays a role in glycogen synthesis.
  • Forms intermediate compounds in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

 

Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic acid (B5) is one of the cooler B vitamins. Its main function is in the rate limiting step in coenzyme-A formation (as in acetyl-CoA – gateway to aerobic metabolism).

 

  • Supports proper adrenal function.
  • May reduce perceptions of stress.
  • Helps control cholesterol levels.

 

Vitamin K

Vitamin K can principally be found in two forms, phylloquinone or menaquinone. Most known for blood clotting, vitamin K has several functions throughout the body.

 

  • Improves bone health by facilitating calcium and osteocalcin binding.
  • Strengthens teeth by aiding in the production of dentin.
  • May decrease markers of inflammation, such as CRP.

 

Folic Acid

Folic acid, or folate, is the fetal vitamin (vitamin B9). Despite being known for healthy babies, folate has at least a dozen other functions. Here are a few:

 

  • Reduces incidence of neural tube defects during embryonic development.
  • Observational studies report reduced risk of various cancers.
  • Low folate levels are correlated with liver damage.

 

Boron

Boron is a mineral that may help with muscle growth. Interestingly, boron is also essential for plant growth. Weird! It’s good for humans too.

 

  • May increase free testosterone to aid in muscle growth.
  • Plays a key role in bone growth and wound healing.
  • Has anti-inflammatory potential.
  • Can prevent vitamin D deficiency.

 

Calcium

Calcium is a common customer in milk and other dairy products. It’s one of the reasons milk is so effective for helping build muscle.

 

  • A signal for muscle contractions lasting longer than 20 seconds.
  • The major component of bones.
  • One of the primary electrolyte minerals.

 

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is another mineral essential for bone health, like calcium and vitamin D, but it doesn’t get as much love. In addition, phosphorus has a good deal of other functions.

 

  • Form high-energy molecules like ATP.
  • A component of DNA and RNA.
  • Supports healthy bones.

 

Iodine

Iodine is a key weight-loss mineral. At one time, most people were deficient in iodine, which is why we now have iodized salt. However, as more people turn to natural salts, iodine deficiencies are becoming a problem once again.

 

  • Forms thyroid hormones that stimulate fat loss.
  • Improves cognitive functioning.
  • Can reduce the severity of thyroid cancers.

 

Magnesium

Magnesium is involved in over 300 reactions throughout the body. Most of these reactions are tied to athletic performance in at least one way.

 

  • Magnesium participates in processes that generate ATP
  • Involved in protein synthesis.
  • Helps with muscle contractions.
  • Increases total work output.
  • Supplementation enhances endurance and peak oxygen consumption.

 

Zinc

Supplemental zinc has benefits that extend far beyond what can be contained in a single summary. Here are some of the highlights.

 

  • Improves sleep quality.
  • Enhances mitochondrial function, which may improve endurance.
  • Prevents exercise-induced decreases in thyroid hormones and testosterone – very important for hard-training athletes.
  • Prolongs the lifespan.
  • Reduces risk of disease.

 

Selenium

This mineral is most abundant in Brazil nuts – just one brazil nut has a whole day’s worth of selenium and then some! That’s good news, as selenium has a pronounced role in good health and exercise recovery.

 

  • Important for thyroid function and body weight regulation.
  • May increase testosterone and IGF-1
  • Can help with insulin sensitivity and function.

 

Copper

Copper has a number of interactions with another popular mineral, iron. They work together principally to foster iron’s purposes, but copper has a few of its own unique properties.

 

  • May reduce incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and neurodegeneration.
  • Reduces depression and anxiety.
  • Supports reductions in oxidative stress and cardiovascular health.

 

Manganese

Similar in name and in function, manganese often can stand in for magnesium in metabolic reactions due to comparable coordination and charge. Some of manganese’s unique functions include:

 

  • Forming the most abundant antioxidant in mitochondria, manganese superoxide dismutase.
  • Producing enzymes and proteoglycans for healthy bones and joints.
  • Involved in glutamine synthesis.

 

Chromium

Chromium may have the most superhero of names, which extends so far as to be implicated for the prevention of “syndrome X.” Its functions are pretty super too.

 

  • Increases insulin efficiency and glucose disposal.
  • May reduce blood lipids, potentially reducing risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Supplementation may increase muscle gains while decreasing body fat.

 

Fruits & Greens

Fruits and vegetables are an essential component of a healthy diet, and they are one of the few examples of a “more is better” approach that does not lead to overconsumption detriments.

 

  • Over 10 different plant-based ingredients provide phytochemical sustenance.
  • Contains powerful antioxidants.
  • High fruit and vegetable consumption decreases all-cause mortality.

 

MSM

Otherwise known as methylsulfonylmethane, MSM is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with roles in joint health as a source of sulfur.

 

  • Reduces exercise-induced oxidation.
  • May decrease muscle damage.
  • Studies have found patients to experienced reduced joint pain with MSM supplementation.

 

Green Tea

Green tea contains the powerful antioxidant EGCG and other catechins that have been observed to have several beneficial effects on health and body composition.

 

  • May reduce body fat mass.
  • Increases fat oxidation.
  • Reduces blood glucose and LDL cholesterol.

 

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant in the mitochondria that offers protection to several organs as well as reducing the potential for aging from dysfunctional mitochondria.

 

  • Reduces general oxidation within the body.
  • Enhances blood flow.
  • May improve nervous system function and neurogenesis.

 

Coenzyme Q10

CoQ10 is a very heart-friendly antioxidant. It has a role in ATP generation along the electron transport chain of the mitochondria and also may prevent several diseases.

 

  • A recent investigation on CoQ10 supplementation for four years reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. A follow-up 12 years later found that although supplementation was discontinued, patients were still experiencing benefits and living longer.
  • Reduces lipid peroxidation.
  • May enhance exercise capacity.

 

Pycnogenol

Pycnogenol is pine bark extract (specifically, French maritime pine bark extract) that is mostly procyanidins (such as in blueberries). Despite sounding relatively ordinary, pycnogenol is one of the most interesting supplements available.

 

  • Increases blood flow in clinical and healthy persons and supports venous insufficiency.
  • Improves attention and cognition.
  • Fosters good skin health and quality.
  • Promotes healthy cholesterol levels.
  • Prevents symptoms of jet lag.

 

Grape Seed Extract

Grape seed is another with procyanidins, but it also contains tannins – another phytonutrient.

 

  • May decrease aromatase, decreasing the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.
  • Helps with appetite regulation.
  • Supports a healthy cardiovascular system.

 

Saw Palmetto Extract

Saw palmetto is an ingredient derived from Serenoa Repens fruit with a particularly prominent role in men’s health.

 

  • Promotes a healthy prostate.
  • May reduce the conversion of testosterone to DHT.
  • Enhances hair regrowth in male pattern baldness, sexual function, and quality of life.

 

Lutein

Lutein is a carotenoid, or provitamin for vitamin A. High concentrations are found in eggs, and provide much of the foods function as an antioxidant and proponent of eye health.

 

  • Supports proper vision.
  • Antioxidant effects.
  • May protect against chronic disease.

 

Piperine

Piperine is an extract of black pepper fruit that works well in conjunction with other supplements.

 

  • Prevents supplements from attacking enzymes
  • Promotes absorption.

 

FAQs

Q: What is the best way to take Synergy for Him™?

A: Use Synergy for Him™ as a dietary supplement. For optimal absorption, take ½ serving (1 capsule) with breakfast and ½ serving (1 capsule) with dinner.

 

Q: What makes this multivitamin different from all the others?

A: Synergy™ was specifically created to provide more than the typical multi. With added fruits and greens, antioxidants, specialized minerals such as boron, choline, and joint support as MSM, Synergy™ is does much more than a the traditional multivitamin.

 

Q: I eat a lot of fruits and veggies, what more can a multivitamin offer me?

A: Eating fruits, vegetables, and other micronutrient-rich foods is absolutely beneficial. However, it’s rare that optimal amounts of vitamins and minerals are obtained day-after-day, which is where Synergy™ comes in.

 

Q: What products should I use with Synergy™?

A: Synergy is a complete multivitamin, so no other vitamin or mineral supplements are needed. For optimal health, use Synergy™ with Omega 3. For sports supplements, Optitune™ has partnered with MuscleSport and Kodiak Sports Nutrition. Take 30% off with code, "OPTITUNE"

References

Vitamin A

  1. Zile, M. H., & Cullum, M. E. (1983). The function of vitamin A: current concepts. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine172(2), 139-152.
  2. Dowling, J. E., & Wald, G. (1960). The biological function of vitamin A acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences46(5), 587-608.
  3. Ross, A. C., & Gardner, E. M. (1994). The function of vitamin A in cellular growth and differentiation, and its roles during pregnancy and lactation. In Nutrient Regulation during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Infant Growth(pp. 187-200). Springer, Boston, MA.

Vitamin C

  1. Moyad, M. A., & Combs, M. A. (2007). Vitamin C Dietary Supplements: An Objective Review of the Clinical Evidence. Parts I-III. In Seminars in Preventive and Alternative Medicine. Elsevier Inc..
  2. Stone, N., & Meister, A. (1962). Function of ascorbic acid in the conversion of proline to collagen hydroxyproline. Nature194, 555-557.
  3. Gale, C. R., Martyn, C. N., Winter, P. D., & Cooper, C. (1995). Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. Bmj310(6994), 1563-1566.

Vitamin D

  1. Littlejohns, T. J., Henley, W. E., Lang, I. A., Annweiler, C., Beauchet, O., Chaves, P. H., ... & Lopez, O. L. (2014). Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Neurology83(10), 920-928.
  2. Spedding, S. (2014). Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws. Nutrients6(4), 1501-1518.
  3. Burgaz, A., Orsini, N., Larsson, S. C., & Wolk, A. (2011). Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: a meta-analysis. Journal of hypertension29(4), 636-645.
  4. Gordan, R., Gwathmey, J. K., & Xie, L. H. (2015). Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function. World journal of cardiology7(4), 204.
  5. Ceglia, L. (2009). Vitamin D and its role in skeletal muscle. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care12(6), 628.
  6. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Willett, W. C., Staehelin, H. B., Bazemore, M. G., Zee, R. Y., & Wong, J. B. (2004). Effect of vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. Jama291(16), 1999-2006.
  7. Cannell, J. J., Vieth, R., Umhau, J. C., Holick, M. F., Grant, W. B., Madronich, S., ... & Giovannucci, E. (2006). Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiology & Infection134(6), 1129-1140.
  8. Pilz, S., Frisch, S., Koertke, H., Kuhn, J., Dreier, J., Obermayer-Pietsch, B., ... & Zittermann, A. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Hormone and Metabolic Research43(3), 223.

Vitamin E

  1. Brigelius-Flohe, R., & Traber, M. G. (1999). Vitamin E: function and metabolism. The FASEB Journal13(10), 1145-1155.
  2. Herrera, E., & Barbas, C. (2001). Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. Journal of physiology and biochemistry57(1), 43-56.
  3. Azzi, A., Ricciarelli, R., & Zingg, J. M. (2002). Non‐antioxidant molecular functions of α‐tocopherol (vitamin E). FEBS letters519(1-3), 8-10.

Thiamin

  1. Weiss, S. (1940). Occidental Beriberi with Cardiovascular Manifestations: Its Relation to Thiamin Deficiency. Journal of the American Medical Association115(10), 832-839.
  2. Collins, G. H. (1966). An electron microscopic study of remyelination in the brainstem of thiamin deficient rats. The American journal of pathology48(2), 259.
  3. Wintrobe, M. M., Mitchell, D. M., & Kolb, L. C. (1938). Sensory Neuron Degeneration in Vitamin Deficiency: Degeneration of the Posterior Columns of the Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves, and Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells in Young Pigs Fed a Diet Containing Thiamin and Riboflavin but Otherwise Deficient in Vitamin B Complex. Journal of Experimental Medicine68(2), 207-220.
  4. Muller, Y. A., Lindqvist, Y., Furey, W., Schulz, G. E., Jordan, F., & Schneider, G. (1993). A thiamin diphosphate binding fold revealed by comparison of the crystal structures of transketolase, pyruvate oxidase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Structure1(2), 95-103.

Riboflavin

  1. Burch, H. B. (1957). [141] Fluorimetric assay of FAD, FMN, and riboflavin.
  2. Lakshmi, R., Lakshmi, A. V., & Bamji, M. S. (1989). Skin wound healing in riboflavin deficiency. Biochemical medicine and metabolic biology42(3), 185-191.
  3. Rushton, D. H. (2002). Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology: Clinical dermatology27(5), 396-404.
  4. Cantaluppi, G. (1962). Clinico-experimental data on the use of riboflavin in the therapy of muscular cramps in pregnancy. Minerva ginecologica14, 984.
  5. THOYER-ROZAT, J., BLANPIN, O., & PIERRE, R. (1962). Riboflavin in muscular cramp in pregnancy. Experimental and clinical study. Semaine des Hopitaux de Paris38(7).
  6. Hassan, R. M., & Thurnham, D. I. (1977). Effect of riboflavin deficiency on the metabolism of the red blood cell. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research47(4), 349-355.

Niacin

  1. Morris, B. J. (2013). Seven sirtuins for seven deadly diseases ofaging. Free Radical Biology and Medicine56, 133-171.
  2. Hwang, E. S., & Song, S. B. (2017). Nicotinamide is an inhibitor of SIRT1 in vitro, but can be a stimulator in cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences74(18), 3347-3362.
  3. Jacobson, E. L., & Jacobson, M. K. (1997). [19] Tissue NAD as a biochemical measure of niacin status in humans. In Methods in enzymology(Vol. 280, pp. 221-230). Academic Press.
  4. Malfait, P., Moren, A., Dillon, J. C., Brodel, A., Begkoyian, G., Etchegorry, M. G., ... & Hakewill, P. (1993). An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. International Journal of Epidemiology22(3), 504-511.
  5. Figueiredo, V. N., Vendrame, F., Colontoni, B. A., Quinaglia, T., Matos-Souza, J. R., Moura, F. A., ... & Sposito, A. C. (2014). Short-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Clinical therapeutics36(6), 961-966.

Vitamin B6

  1. Denner, L. A., & Wu, J. Y. (1985). Two forms of rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase differ in their dependence on free pyridoxal phosphate. Journal of neurochemistry44(3), 957-965.
  2. Zhuo, J. M., & Praticò, D. (2010). Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet. Experimental gerontology45(3), 195-201.
  3. RICHERT, D. A., & SCHULMAN, M. P. (1959). Vitamin interrelationships in heme synthesis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition7(4), 416-425.
  4. Hedrick, J. L., & Fischer, E. H. (1965). On the Role of Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate in Phosphorylase. I. Absence of Classical Vitamin B6—dependent Enzymatic Activities in Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase. Biochemistry4(7), 1337-1343.
  5. OKADA, M., ISHIKAWA, K., & WATANABE, K. (1991). Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on glycogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle, heart, and liver of rats. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology37(4), 349-357.

Vitamin B12

  1. Woolf, K., & Manore, M. M. (2006). B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism16(5), 453-484.
  2. Paulin, F. V., Zagatto, A. M., Chiappa, G. R., & de Tarso Müller, P. (2017). Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respiratory medicine122, 23-29.
  3. Lukaski, H. C. (2004). Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition20(7-8), 632-644.
  4. Lövblad, K. O., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., & Schroth, G. (1997). Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B 12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatric radiology27(2), 155-158.
  5. Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Keith, G., & Dirheimer, G. (1991). Effect of cobalamin derivatives on in vitro enzymic DNA methylation: methylcobalamin can act as a methyl donor. Biochemistry30(32), 8045-8051.

Biotin

  1. Shiio, I., ÔTSUKA, S. I., & TAKAHASHI, M. (1962). Effect of biotin on the bacterial formation of glutamic acid: I. Glutamate formation and cellular permeability of amino acids. The Journal of Biochemistry51(1), 56-62.
  2. Wang, Z. Q., Zhang, X. H., & Cefalu, W. T. (2000). Chromium picolinate and biotin enhance glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase gene expression in human skeletal muscle culture. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice50, 395.

Pantothenic Acid

  1. Kelly, G. S. (1999). Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic4(4), 249-265.
  2. Evans, M., Rumberger, J. A., Azumano, I., Napolitano, J. J., Citrolo, D., & Kamiya, T. (2014). Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Vascular health and risk management10, 89.
  3. Ralli, E. P., & Dumm, M. E. (1953). Relation of pantothenic acid to adrenal cortical function. Vitam Horm11, 133-158.

Vitamin K

  1. Knapen, M. H. J., Schurgers, L. J., & Vermeer, C. (2007). Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international18(7), 963-972.
  2. Maresz, K. (2015). Proper calcium use: vitamin K2 as a promoter of bone and cardiovascular health. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal14(1), 34.
  3. Huang, Z. B., Wan, S. L., Lu, Y. J., Ning, L., Liu, C., & Fan, S. W. (2015). Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporosis international26(3), 1175-1186.
  4. Shea, M. K., Booth, S. L., Massaro, J. M., Jacques, P. F., D'Agostino Sr, R. B., Dawson-Hughes, B., ... & Vasan, R. S. (2007). Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. American journal of epidemiology167(3), 313-320.
  5. Hauschka, P. V., Lian, J. B., Cole, D. E., & Gundberg, C. M. (1989). Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone. Physiological reviews69(3), 990-1047.

Folic Acid

  1. Welzel, T. M., Katki, H. A., Sakoda, L. C., Evans, A. A., London, W. T., Chen, G., ... & McGlynn, K. A. (2007). Blood folate levels and risk of liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma in a prospective high-risk cohort. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers16(6), 1279-1282.
  2. Shrubsole, M. J., Jin, F., Dai, Q., Shu, X. O., Potter, J. D., Hebert, J. R., ... & Zheng, W. (2001). Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer research61(19), 7136-7141.
  3. Su, L. J., & Arab, L. (2001). Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Annals of epidemiology11(1), 65-72.
  4. Wilson, R. D., Désilets, V., Wyatt, P., Langlois, S., Gagnon, A., Allen, V., ... & Koren, G. (2007). Pre-conceptional vitamin/folic acid supplementation 2007: the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada29(12), 1003-1013.

Boron

  1. Pizzorno, L. (2015). Nothing boring about boron. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal14(4), 35.
  2. Naghii, M. R. (1999). The significance of dietary boron, with particular reference to athletes. Nutrition and health13(1), 31-37.
  3. Nielsen FH, Stoecker BJ. (2009) Boron and fish oil have different beneficial effects on strength and trabecular microarchitecture of bone. J Trace Elem Med Biol.23(3):195–203
  4. Dupre, J. N., Keenan, M. J., Hegsted, M., & Brudevold, A. M. (1994). Effects of dietary boron in rats fed a vitamin D-deficient diet. Environmental health perspectives102(Suppl 7), 55.

Calcium

  1. Johnston Jr, C. C., Miller, J. Z., Slemenda, C. W., Reister, T. K., Hui, S., Christian, J. C., & Peacock, M. (1992). Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. New England journal of medicine327(2), 82-87.
  2. Reid, I. R., Ames, R. W., Evans, M. C., Gamble, G. D., & Sharpe, S. J. (1995). Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of medicine98(4), 331-335.
  3. Ebashi, S., & Endo, M. (1968). Calcium and muscle contraction. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology18, 123-183.

Phosphorus

  1. Teegarden, D., Lyle, R. M., McCabe, G. P., McCabe, L. D., Proulx, W. R., Michon, K., ... & Weaver, C. M. (1998). Dietary calcium, protein, and phosphorus are related to bone mineral density and content in young women. The American journal of clinical nutrition68(3), 749-754.

Iodine

  1. Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Li, J., Shan, Z., & Teng, W. (2013). Effects of Marginal Iodine Deficiency on rat offspring. Journal of Endocrinology, JOE-12.
  2. Sethi, V., & Kapil, U. (2004). Iodine deficiency and development of brain. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics71(4), 325-329.
  3. Zimmermann, M. B., & Galetti, V. (2015). Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Thyroid research8(1), 8.
  4. Abrams, G. M., & Larsen, P. R. (1973). Triiodothyronine and thyroxine in the serum and thyroid glands of iodine-deficient rats. The Journal of clinical investigation52(10), 2522-2531.

Magnesium

  1. Food and Nutrition Board. (1997). Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and floride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997
  2. Volpe, S. L. (2015). Magnesium and the athlete. Current sports medicine reports14(4), 279-283.
  3. McDonald, R., & Keen, C. L. (1988). Iron, zinc and magnesium nutrition and athletic performance. Sports Medicine5(3), 171-184.
  4. Lukaski, H. C., & Nielsen, F. H. (2002). Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women. The Journal of nutrition, 132(5), 930-935.
  5. Vecchiet, L., Pieralisi, G., D’Ovidio, M., Dragani, L., Felzani, G., Mincarini, A., ... & Piovanelli, P. (1995). Effects of magnesium supplementation on maximal and submaximal effort. Magnesium and Physical Activity, 227-237.
  6. Brilla, L. R., & Gunther, K. B. (1995). Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion. Med Exerc Nutr Health, 4, 230-233.

Zinc

  1. Kilic, M., Baltaci, A. K., Gunay, M., Gökbel, H., Okudan, N., & Cicioglu, I. (2006). The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuro endocrinology letters27(1-2), 247-252.
  2. Masayoshi, Y., Masatsugu, K., & Shoji, O. (1982). Role of zinc as an activator of mitochondrial function in rat liver. Biochemical pharmacology31(7), 1289-1293.
  3. Xu, Z., & Zhou, J. (2013). Zinc and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biometals26(6), 863-878.
  4. Eby, G. A., & Halcomb, W. W. (2006). High-dose zinc to terminate angina pectoris: a review and hypothesis for action by ICAM inhibition. Medical hypotheses66(1), 169-172.
  5. Guoa, C. H., Wangb, C. L., Chen, P. C., & Yang, T. C. (2011). Linkage of some trace elements, peripheral blood lymphocytes, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis International31(5), 583-591.
  6. Mocchegiani, E., Costarelli, L., Giacconi, R., Cipriano, C., Muti, E., & Malavolta, M. (2006). Zinc-binding proteins (metallothionein and α-2 macroglobulin) and immunosenescence. Experimental gerontology41(11), 1094-1107.
  7. Kordas, K., Siegel, E. H., Olney, D. K., Katz, J., Tielsch, J. M., Kariger, P. K., ... & Stoltzfus, R. J. (2009). The effects of iron and/or zinc supplementation on maternal reports of sleep in infants from Nepal and Zanzibar. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP30(2), 131.
  8. Song, C. H., Kim, Y. H., & Jung, K. I. (2012). Associations of zinc and copper levels in serum and hair with sleep duration in adult women. Biological trace element research149(1), 16-21.

Selenium

  1. Stapleton, S. R. (2000). Selenium: an insulin mimetic. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS57(13-14), 1874-1879.
  2. Drutel, A., Archambeaud, F., & Caron, P. (2013). Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians. Clinical endocrinology78(2), 155-164.
  3. Toulis, K. A., Anastasilakis, A. D., Tzellos, T. G., Goulis, D. G., & Kouvelas, D. (2010). Selenium supplementation in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thyroid20(10), 1163-1173.
  4. Behne, D., Weiler, H., & Kyriakopoulos, A. (1996). Effects of selenium deficiency on testicular morphology and function in rats. Journal of reproduction and fertility106(2), 291-297.
  5. Maggio, M., De Vita, F., Lauretani, F., Buttò, V., Bondi, G., Cattabiani, C., ... & Ceda, G. P. (2013). IGF-1, the cross road of the nutritional, inflammatory and hormonal pathways to frailty. Nutrients5(10), 4184-4205.
  6. El-Sisy, G. A., Abdel-Razek, A. M. A., Younis, A. A., Ghallab, A. M., & Abdou, M. S. S. (2008). Effect of dietary zinc or Selenium supplementation on some reproductive hormone levels in male Baladi Goats. Global Vet2(2), 46-50.
  7. Neek, L. S., Gaeini, A. A., & Choobineh, S. (2011). Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout. Biological trace element research144(1-3), 454-462.

Copper

  1. House, E., Mold, M., Collingwood, J., Baldwin, A., Goodwin, S., & Exley, C. (2009). Copper abolishes the β-sheet secondary structure of preformed amyloid fibrils of amyloid-β 42. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease18(4), 811-817.
  2. Kashanian, M., Hadizadeh, H., Faghankhani, M., Nazemi, M., & Sheikhansari, N. (2018). Evaluating the effects of copper supplement during pregnancy on premature rupture of membranes and pregnancy outcome. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine31(1), 39-46.
  3. Al-Bayati, M. A., Jamil, D. A., & Al-Aubaidy, H. A. (2015). Cardiovascular effects of copper deficiency on activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic nephropathy. North American journal of medical sciences7(2), 41.
  4. Allen, K. G., & Klevay, L. M. (1978). Cholesterolemia and cardiovascular abnormalities in rats caused by copper deficiency. Atherosclerosis29(1), 81-93.

Manganese

  1. Leach RM, Harris ED. Manganese. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:335-355
  2. Liu, A. H., Heinrichs, B. S., & Leach Jr, R. M. (1994). Influence of manganese deficiency on the characteristics of proteoglycans of avian epiphyseal growth plate cartilage. Poultry science73(5), 663-669.
  3. Zhao, Y., Chaiswing, L., Velez, J. M., Batinic-Haberle, I., Colburn, N. H., Oberley, T. D., & Clair, D. K. S. (2005). p53 translocation to mitochondria precedes its nuclear translocation and targets mitochondrial oxidative defense protein-manganese superoxide dismutase. Cancer research65(9), 3745-3750.
  4. Bock, C. W., Katz, A. K., Markham, G. D., & Glusker, J. P. (1999). Manganese as a replacement for magnesium and zinc: functional comparison of the divalent ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society121(32), 7360-7372.
  5. Wedler, F. C., Denman, R. B., & Roby, W. G. (1982). Glutamine synthetase from ovine brain is a manganese (II) enzyme. Biochemistry21(25), 6389-6396.

Chromium

  1. Mertz, W. (1993). Chromium in human nutrition: a review. The Journal of nutrition123(4), 626-633.
  2. Pechova, A., & Pavlata, L. (2007). Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review. VETERINARNI MEDICINA-PRAHA-52(1), 1.

Fruits & Greens

  1. Wang, X., Ouyang, Y., Liu, J., Zhu, M., Zhao, G., Bao, W., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Bmj349, g4490.
  2. John, J. H., Ziebland, S., Yudkin, P., Roe, L. S., & Neil, H. A. W. (2002). Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. The lancet359(9322), 1969-1974.
  3. Beecher, G. R. (1999). Phytonutrients' role in metabolism: effects on resistance to degenerative processes. Nutrition Reviews57(9), 3-6.

MSM

  1. Debbi, E. M., Agar, G., Fichman, G., Ziv, Y. B., Kardosh, R., Halperin, N., ... & Debi, R. (2011). Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine11(1), 50.
  2. Barmaki, S., Bohlooli, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Nakhostin-Roohi, B. (2012). Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise—Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness52(2), 170.
  3. Nakhostin‐Roohi, B., Barmaki, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Bohlooli, S. (2011). Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology63(10), 1290-1294.

Green Tea

  1. Maki, K. C., Reeves, M. S., Farmer, M., Yasunaga, K., Matsuo, N., Katsuragi, Y., ... & Blumberg, J. B. (2008). Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. The Journal of nutrition139(2), 264-270.
  2. Wang, H., Wen, Y., Du, Y., Yan, X., Guo, H., Rycroft, J. A., ... & Mela, D. J. (2010). Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity18(4), 773-779.
  3. Venables, M. C., Hulston, C. J., Cox, H. R., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2008). Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. The American journal of clinical nutrition87(3), 778-784.
  4. Wu, A. H., Spicer, D., Stanczyk, F. Z., Tseng, C., Yang, C. S., & Pike, M. C. (2012). Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormonal levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer Prevention Research, canprevres-0407.
  5. Batista, G. D. A. P., Cunha, C. L., Scartezini, M., von der Heyde, R., Bitencourt, M. G., & Melo, S. F. D. (2009). Prospective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea) in dyslipidemias. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia93(2), 128-134.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

  1. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol60(2), 139-43.
  2. Xiang, G. D., Pu, J. H., Sun, H. L., & Zhao, L. S. (2010). Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes118(09), 625-629.
  3. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., ... & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology22(3_suppl), 45-50.

Coenzyme Q10

  1. Glover, E. I., Martin, J., Maher, A., Thornhill, R. E., Moran, G. R., & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2010). A randomized trial of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial disorders. Muscle & nerve42(5), 739-748.
  2. Liao, P., Zhang, Y., Liao, Y., Zheng, N. J., & Zhang, X. (2007). Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on liver mitochondrial function and aerobic capacity in adolescent athletes. Chinese journal of applied physiology23(4), 491-494.
  3. Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. PloS one13(4), e0193120.

Pycnogenol

  1. Belcaro, G., Luzzi, R., Dugall, M., Ippolito, E., & Saggino, A. (2014). Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals age 35–55. J Neurosurg Sci58(4), 239-248.
  2. Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Steigerwalt, R. J., Di, A. R., Grossi, M. G., Ricci, A., ... & Cacchio, M. (2008). Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients. Minerva cardioangiologica56(5 Suppl), 3-9.
  3. Marini, A., Grether-Beck, S., Jaenicke, T., Weber, M., Burki, C., Formann, P., ... & Krutmann, J. (2012). Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin pharmacology and physiology25(2), 86-92.
  4. Devaraj, S., Vega-López, S., Kaul, N., Schönlau, F., Rohdewald, P., & Jialal, I. (2002). Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids37(10), 931-934.
  5. Koch, R. (2002). Comparative study of Venostasin® and Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytotherapy Research16(S1), 1-5.
  6. Enseleit, F., Sudano, I., Periat, D., Winnik, S., Wolfrum, M., Flammer, A. J., ... & Krasniqi, N. (2012). Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. European heart journal33(13), 1589-1597.
  7. Nishioka, K., Hidaka, T., Nakamura, S., Umemura, T., Jitsuiki, D., Soga, J., ... & Higashi, Y. (2007). Pycnogenol®, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertension Research30(9), 775.
  8. Luzzi, R., Belcaro, G., Zulli, C., Cesarone, M. R., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., ... & Feragalli, B. (2011). Pycnogenol® supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva medica53(3 Suppl 1), 75-82.

Grape Seed Extract

  1. Kijima, I., Phung, S., Hur, G., Kwok, S. L., & Chen, S. (2006). Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression. Cancer research66(11), 5960-5967.
  2. Vogels, N., Nijs, I. M. T., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2004). The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. European journal of clinical nutrition58(4), 667.
  3. Clifton, P. M. (2004). Effect of grape seed extract and quercetin on cardiovascular and endothelial parameters in high-risk subjects. BioMed Research International2004(5), 272-278.
  4. Kar, P., Laight, D., Rooprai, H. K., Shaw, K. M., & Cummings, M. (2009). Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabetic Medicine26(5), 526-531.

Saw Palmetto Extract

  1. Bertaccini, A., Giampaoli, M., Cividini, R., Gattoni, G. L., Sanseverino, R., Realfonso, T., ... & Galasso, R. (2012). Observational database serenoa repens (DOSSER): overview, analysis and results. A multicentric SIUrO (Italian Society of Oncological Urology) project. Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica84(3), 117-122.
  2. Suter, A., Saller, R., Riedi, E., & Heinrich, M. (2013). Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial. Phytotherapy research27(2), 218-226.
  3. Rossi, A., Mari, E., Scarno, M., Garelli, V., Maxia, C., Scali, E., ... & Carlesimo, M. (2012). Comparitive Effectiveness and Finasteride Vs Serenoa Repens in Male Androgenetic Alopecia: A Two-Year Study. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology25(4), 1167-1173.

Lutein

  1. Nidhi, B., Sharavana, G., Ramaprasad, T. R., & Vallikannan, B. (2015). Lutein derived fragments exhibit higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties than lutein in lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in rats. Food & function6(2), 450-460.
  2. Dagnelie, G., Zorge, I. S., & McDonald, T. M. (2000). Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the Internet. Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)71(3), 147-164.
  3. Mares-Perlman, J. A., Millen, A. E., Ficek, T. L., & Hankinson, S. E. (2002). The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview. The Journal of nutrition132(3), 518S-524S.

Piperine

  1. Shoba₁, G., Joy₁, D., Joseph₁, T., Rajendran₂, M. M. R., & Srinivas₂, P. S. S. R. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta medica64, 353-356.
  2. Han, H. K. (2011). The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology7(6), 721-729.
WARNING

California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.

WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/